The TSU Laboratory of Translational Cellular and Molecular Biomedicine has summarized the results of their research and analyzed all the data available on the role of reprogrammed immune cells in the development of breast, colon, lung, prostate, and ovarian cancer. This data will help clinicians find new targets for immunotherapy and personalize therapies for patients, which can not only increase survival but also improve the chances of a complete cure. The article was published in the highly-ranked journal Frontiers in Oncology.
Tumors can occur in any organ. They have tissue-specific features: specifics of development, course of the disease, treatment, and prognosis. The functions of macrophages and their characteristics in tumors of different localization are also different. Scientists from the TSU Laboratory of Translational Cellular and Molecular Biomedicine have found out the characteristics of the behavior of reprogrammed macrophages in several types of cancer that, are leaders in morbidity and mortality among Russians.
Thus, lung cancer ranks first, breast cancer is second among women, and colon cancer is in fifth place. At the same time, these tumors very often metastasize, and a large number of macrophages are found in them.
The data on the role of TAMs in the metastasis of ovarian cancer showed that, starting from the second stage, ascites (the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, a consequence of a tumor) often develops in patients. It was found that macrophages released into the ascites fluid can bind to tumor cells and help them penetrate blood vessels and migrate, forming a secondary focus - metastasis. In the future, the researchers plan to study in more detail the functions of such groups of cells to find a way to neutralize them.
The data collected will help scientists understand the relationships between macrophages and tumor growth, metastasis, and prognosis of cancer, and identify gaps in this area and focus on studying the patterns that have not yet been discovered. These data will serve as a platform for the development of both prognosis criteria for the disease and new approaches to cancer therapy based on blocking the function of tumor-associated macrophages.